केळी          Banana                  Musa paradisica

पपई          Papaya                  Carica papaya

नारळ                Coconut                 Cocos nucifera

काजू                Cashew nut            Anacardium occidentale

लीची                 Litchi                     Litchi chinensis

सीताफळ           Custard apple        Annona sqamosa

रामफळ             Bullock’s heart      Annona reticulate

लक्ष्मणफळ          Cherimola              Annona cherimola

हनुमानफळ        Atemoya                 Annona atemoya

चिकू                Sapota                    Achrus zapota

बोर                 Ber                         Zizyphus jujube

डाळींब              Pomogranate          Punica granatum

फणस               Jackfruit                 Artocarpus heterophyllus

अंजीर             Fig                          Ficus carica

ग्रेप फ्रुट          Grapefruit             Citrus  paradisi

लिंबू              Lemon                    Citrus limon 

संत्रा               Orange                   Citrus sinensis

किन्नू            Kinnow                   Citrus nobilis × deliciosa

खजूर        Date palm              Phoenix dactylifera

पैशन फ्रुट           Passion fruit           Passiflora edulis 

बेल               Bael                        Aegle marmelos

जांभूळ           Jamun                      Eugenia jambolana

आवळा          Amala                       Phyllanthus emblica

फालसा          Phalsa                      Grewia asiatica

स्ट्रोबेरी           Strawberry                      Fragaria  ananassa 

रासबेरी           Raspberry (Red)             Rubus idaeus

करवंद           Karvand                           Carissa carandas 

कलिंगड       Watermelon               Citrullus lanatus

खरबूज          Muskmelon                       Cuccumis melon

आंबा               Mango                                      Mangifera indica 

सफरचंद        Apple (domestic)                Malus domestica

पिअर            Pear (Asian)                       Pyrus pyrifolia

प्लम             Plum                                  Prunus domestica

चेरी (गोड )    Cherry (Sweet)                    Prunus avium

चेरी (आंबट)   Cherry (Sour)                      Prunus cerasus

किवी            Kiwi                                    Actinidia deliciosa



 Endemism is the ecological state of being unique to a particular geographic location, such as a specific island, habitat type, nation or other defined zone. To be endemic to a place or area means that it is found only in that part of the world and nowhere else.The extreme opposite of endemism is cosmopolitan distribution. 

Physical, climatic, and biological factors can contribute to endemism.  Political factors can play a part if a species is protected, or actively hunted, in one jurisdiction but not another.

There are two subcategories of endemism - paleoendemism and neoendemism. Paleoendemism refers to a species that was formerly widespread but is now restricted to a smaller area. Neoendemism refers to a species that has recently arisen such as a species that has diverged and become reproductively isolated, or one that has formed following hybridization and is now classified as a separate species. This is a common process in plants especially those which exhibit polyploidy.

Endemic types or species are especially likely to develop on biologically isolated areas such as islands because of their geographical isolation. This includes remote island groups, such as Hawaii, the Galápagos Islands, and Socotra, and biologically isolated but not island areas such as the highlands of Ethiopia, or large bodies of water like Lake Baikal.

Endemics can easily become endangered or extinct if their restricted habitat changes, particularly but not only due to human actions, including the introduction of new organisms. There were millions of both Bermuda Petrels and "Bermuda cedars" (actually junipers) in Bermuda when it was settled at the start of the seventeenth century. By the end of the century, the petrels were thought extinct. Cedars, already ravaged by centuries of shipbuilding, were driven nearly to extinction in the twentieth century by the introduction of a parasite. Bermuda petrels and cedars, although not actually extinct, are very rare today, as are other species endemic to Bermuda.

Checklist of Endemic Plants of Maharashtra:- Checklist Stats -Number of Species: 170.

1Abutilon ranadeiWoodr. et Stapf.Malvaceae
2Achyranthes caturusHeyne ex Hook.f.Amaranthaceae
3Achyranthes coyneiSantapauAmaranthaceae
4Allophylus concanicusRadlk.Sapindaceae
5Alysicarpus luteo-vexallatusNaik et PokleFabaceae
6Alysicarpus narimaniiS.M.Almeida et M.R.AlmeidaFabaceae
7Alysicarpus salim-aliiS.M.AlmeidaFabaceae
8Alysicarpus tetragonolobusEdgew. var. pashanensis S.M.Almeida et M.R.AlmeidaFabaceae
9Amorphophallus konkanensisHett.Araceae
10Aponogeton bruggeniYadav et GovekarAponogetonaceae
11Aponogeton satarensisSundararaghavan, Kulkarni et YadavAponogetonaceae
12Argyreia boseanaSantapau et PatelConvolvulaceae
13Arisaema caudatumEngl.Araceae
14Arisaema sahyadricumYadav, Patil et BachulkarAraceae
15Arthraxon hispidus(Thunb.) Makino var. junnarensis (Jain et Hemadri) WelzenPoaceae
16Arthraxon hispidus(Thunb.) Makino var. santapaui (Bor) WelzenPoaceae
17Arthraxon lanceolatus(Roxb.) Hochst. var. raizada (Jain, Hemadri et Deshpande) WelzenPoaceae
18Asystasia mysorensisT.Anders.Acanthaceae
19Barleria gibsonioidesBlattA
Botanical survey of India

 Botanical Survey of India (BSI) 

 The Botanical Survey of India (BSI) is the apex research organization under the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India for carrying out taxonomic and floristic studies on wild plant resources of the country. It was established on 13th February, 1890 with the basic objective to explore the plant resources of the country and to identify the plants species with economic virtues. The Botanical Survey of India has the eleven regional circles situated at different regions of the country. 

 Organisation Setup 

The present set up of Botanical Survey of India is as follows:-

HEADQUARTERS: KOLKATA/HOWRAH: having following units

  1. Ecology
  2. Cryptogamic Botany
  3. Plant Chemistry
  4. Pharmacognosy
  5. Flora of India
  6. Publication
  7. Library and documentation
  8. Technical.

    INDIAN BOTANIC GARDEN, HOWRAH: a 273 acre sprawling garden and National Orchidarium.
    CENTRAL NATIONAL HERBARIUM, HOWRAH (Acronym: CAL): including the Palynology Unit (covering states of Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal).
    CENTRAL BOTANICAL LABORATORY, HOWRAH: with Economic Botany, Cytology and  Plant Physiology and Biochemistry units.

1)Eastern Circle, Shillong (covering the states of Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram,  Nagaland and Tripura).  The circle has a National Orchidarium at Shillong and  an associated Botanic Garden at Barapani and Tissue Culture laboratory at both Shillong and Barapani.
2)Southern Circle, Coimbatore (covering the states of Kerala and Tamilnadu and Union Terrirories of Lakshadweep & Minicoy Islands). The circle has a National Orchidarium, an associated Botanic garden and a Tissue Culuture laboratory at Yercaud.
3)Western Circle, Pune (covering states of  Goa, Karnataka and Maharashtra and Union Terrirories of Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman, Diu). The circle has an associated Botanic Garden at  Mundhwa.
4)Northern Circle, Dehra Dun (covering the the states of  Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Uttranchal and Union Terrirories of Chandigarh. The circle has three associated Botanic Gardens at Dehra Dun, Khirsu and Pauri, one green, house one Orchidarium and one Tissue Culture laboratory at Dehradun.
5)Central Circle, Allahabad (covering the states of Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh and Uttar Pradesh). The circle has an associated Botanic Garden at Allahabad.
6)Arid Zone Circle, Jodhpur (covering the states of Rajasthan and Gujarat). The circle has an associated Desert Botanic Garden at Jodhpur.
7)Andaman & Nicobar Circle, Port Blair (all the oceanic Islands under Andaman & Nicobar). The circle has an associated Botanic Garden at Dhanikhari.

8)Sikkim Himalayan Circle, Gangtok (covering the states of Sikkim and Darjeeling district of West Bengal). The circle has a Green House and a Glass House at Gangtok.

9)Arunachal Pradesh Circle, Itanagar (covering the state of Arunachal Pradesh). The circle  has an Arboretum at Sankie View, Itanagar
10)Botanic Garden of Indian Republic, Noida (covering the National Capital Territory Region of Delhi). The Centre is currently under the development.
11)Deccan Circle (Covering the states of Andhra Pradesh and Orissa.)

   Aims & Objectives 


  1. Exploration, inventorying and documentation of phytodiversity (including non-flowering plants) in general and protected areas, hotspots, fragile ecosystems and sacred groves in particular; publication of National, State and District Floras.
  2. Identification of Red list species and species rich areas needing conservation; ex situ conservation of critically threatened taxa in botanical gardens.
  3. Survey and documentation of traditional knowledge (ethno-botany) associated with plants.
  4. Develop a National database of Indian plants, including herbarium specimens, live specimens, botanical paintings illustrations etc.


  1. Revisionary/Monographic studies on selected plant groups.
  2. Qualitative analysis of nutritive value of ethno-food plants and other economically useful species.
  3. Capacity building in plant taxonomy through refresher courses and post M.Sc. certificate course.
  4. Environment Impact Assessment of areas assigned to BSI for study.
  5. Develop and maintain Botanical Gardens, Museum and Herbaria.
  6. Preparation of Seed, Pollen and Spore Atlas of Indian Plants.
  7. Repatriation of Indian Biodiversity Information held in herbaria/museums abroad.

Achievements and contribution 
of Western circle(Pune) of BSI


              National Flora
              State Flora
              Regional Flora
              District Flora




NOTES FOR TYBSc :- Topic:- Origin of Angiosperms

Place of origin of angiosperms:-

The place of origin of angiosperms has no concrete suggestions and it is also not yet finally decided. There are 3 main views regarding the place of origin.

Hear (1868) recommended the polar region to be the center of origin. This recommendation was supported by Hooker (1887), Engler(1904 and Arnold (1947). But Croziat criticized this idea .

Hallier 1912 stated that the basin of the pacific ocean to be the cradle of angiosperms. Many primitive families like Magnoliacae etc. are concentrated about the pacific basin. This idea did not get any support from geological evidences.

Baily !949 supported Northern`Australia , New Guania, New Caledonia, Fiji and adjacent areas are the places of origin of angiosperms as these areas shows rich assemblage of primitive forms of angiosperms. Takhtajan supported that the eastern south eastern Asia, Australia and Malonesia as the birth place of angiosperms.



The time of origin of angiosperms is decided mainly on the basis of available fossil record.  From middle Cretaceous onwards there is plenty of fossil record of angiosperms which suggests their great presence. Unfortunately very scanty fossil record of angisperms is available from Triassic and Jurassic period. The oldest known fossil of angisperm is Furcula granulifera which is a leaf fossil found from the late triassic rocks of Greenland. This is the direct proof of their presence in late triassic. Some of the scientists believe that angiosperms may have originated even before triassic (Permian period of mesozoic) but the conditions were not suitable for fossilization as they were dwelling to highland areas. Therefore the time of origin can be traced back to early Mesozoic ( Permian period )or late Paleozoic (Triassic period).

There are many views regarding ancestry of angiosperms. Different plant groups were proposed as ancestors to angiosperms by various workers. Three important theories of origin of angiosperms are summarized as under.

Gnetalean theory :-

According to this theory Gnetales, a order of gymnosperms is supposed to be the ancestor of angiosperms.Wettstein (1901), proposed this theory and Markgraf (1930) and Fagerlind (1947) strongly supported his views. This theory is based on the apparent (external) similarities observed between the two groups. 

1)The leaf of Gnetum with broad lamina and reticulate venation exactly looks like a typical dicot leaf. 

2)Presence of two cotyledons and vessels are other common characters between the two groups. 

3)The unisexual inflorescence of Gnetum can easily compared with the catkin of many amentiferous angiosperms. 

4)The stamens of three genera of Gnetales are apparently similar to those of angiosperms. 

5)The gametophytes in both the groups are highly reduced.

Weakness of the theory-

This theory is objected and criticized on the dissimilarities on issues like ontogeny (development) of vessels, cotyledonary characters, loss of archegonia , vascular anatomy of ovule and female gametophyte.

Bennettitalean theory

Saporta and Marion(1885), and later Arber and Parkin (1907), proposed the Bennettitales, the extinct group of gymnosperms to be the possible ancestors of angiosperms. The basis of this theory is the resemblance in structure between the srobili of the Mesozoic genus Cycadeoidea and the flowers of Magnolia.  Both these structures are bisexual and consists of an elongated axis on which the protective bracts, microsporophylls and megasporophylls are arranged successively from below upwards. 

Weakness of the theory- Detailed studies reveal that there are several differences in spite of this superficial resemblance. The microsporophylls (stamens) of magnolia are free and are spirally arranged on the axis but in bennettitales they are whorled  and mostly connate. The megasporophylls of bennettitales are greatly reduced, simplified stalk like structures, each bearing a solitary terminal ovule. Between megasporophylls there are sterile scales which appear to be sterilized megasporophylls. These are protective in function. There are no such structures in the flower of Magnolia. Further the micropylar tube formed in the ovules of bennettitales is unknown in angiosperms and the pollen grains are shed on the stigma of carpel. Again the seeds of bennettitales are non endospermic with a large embryo while those of primitive angiosperms are with copies endosperm and small embryo. Lastly the bennettitalean stem has a large pith, a thin vascular cylinder and a thick cortex while the angiosperm stem has a small pith, a thick vascular cylinder and a thin cortex. All these facts indicate that the bennettitales cannot have been the ancestors of angiosperms.  

Pteridosperms theory :-

According to this theory, Preridosperms (Cycadofilicales) commonly known as seed ferns, a extinct group of paleozoic era,is supposed to be the ancestor of angiosperms. Andrew,1947; Arnold,1949; Thomas, 1955 and Cronqist 1968 supported this view.

This theory is based on the following similarities between the two groups, pteridosperms & angiosperms.

1) Seed habit is the common feature of the pteridospermales and angiosperms. 

2) Vascular histology, stellar structure and available fossil records also favor this theory. 

3) In both groups sporangial development is eusporangiate type. 

4) Amphiphloic siphonostele is also a common feature. 

5) Some primitive angiosperms show absence of vessels in their secondary wood also goes in favor of this theory.

Weakness of the theory-
It is not possible to explain the complex pteridosperm seed in terms of simple angiosperm ovule.








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